The building foundation materials should be at least as long-lasting as the rest of the structure. Foundations Materials are subject to attack by moisture, rodents, termites and, to a limited extent, wind.
The purpose of this article is to provide information about different types of foundation materials used for building construction or building foundation required for houses. Most common Foundation Materials are Earth, Bricks, Steel, Stone etc.
Building Foundation Materials
It is important to use a building foundation materials with a high degree of resistance to water or lateral forces created by saturated soil on the outside. Rain, surface water, or groundwater can all contribute to moisture problems, but a footing drain can help reduce these problems.
The foundation materials should be such that it will not be damaged by water or lateral forces created by saturated soil. As with the rest of the structure, the foundation materials should have at least the same durability.
What is Building Foundations?
In construction, the foundation is defined as the part of a building that supports the load of the upper part and transfers it to the soil below.
For building foundations, there are several types of foundation materials. As the load of the whole structure is supported by the foundation materials, they are of prime importance for transferring loads safely to the soil.
Mostly used types of foundation are listed below in building Construction.
1. Shallow foundation.
- Isolated footing
- Combined footing
- Strip foundation
- Strip foundation
2. Deep Foundation
- Pile foundation
- Drilled Shafts or caissons
Function of Building Foundation Materials
It is sometimes necessary to ensure the foundation is watertight to prevent water from entering a basement or up through it to the walls of the building above.
Whether the foundation is above ground or below ground, it should extend at least 150 mm above ground level to ensure that the wall’s base is adequately protected from moisture, surface water, etc.
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Various Types of Building Foundation Materials
Most Common Materials Used in Foundation Construction
- Concrete blocks
- Fly Ash
There are various advantages of using earth as a foundation material, including low cost and availability. However, this material is only suitable in very dry climates.
A level of rainfall and soil moisture that is too high for an unprotected earth foundation may require the use of stone facing. Some polythene sheets may also be used to shield the foundation from moisture.
Rammed earth foundation is most famous in Earth foundation are made of well graded soil, preferably wig a stabilizer for water resistance and higher strength.
A monolithic earth foundation made of earth bricks or blocks has the same inherent limitations as stabilized earth bricks or blocks. They are only suitable for very dry areas, and even in those areas they should be protected from moisture.
Bricks that are locally produced are usually cheaper, but they are not suitable for use in moist conditions. Factory made bricks are frequently too expensive to be used as foundation bricks.
The use of wood for foundations may seem unsuitable, but many times concrete foundations are too costly, so wood is used instead. Wood foundations often make up the base of wooden houses or in instances where concrete will cost too much.
The foundation of a basement is typically made of pressure-treated wood, which is coated with multiple chemicals to prevent rotting and to defend against pests that eat wood, such as termites.
The stone is strong, durable, and affordable if it is found near the construction site, and it is suitable for low piers and curtain walls for economic reasons, though it is difficult to make them watertight.
For protection against termite attacks, stone foundations are recommended, as they provide an impermeable barrier.
5. Poured Concrete
For its hardness, durability, and strength, Concrete is an ideal material for foundations. It does not lose its strength with moisture, and can be made nearly watertight for basement walls. It can be easily shaped into the unique shapes required for every foundation.
6. Concrete blocks
It is easier to construct a concrete block wall than a brick wall and does not resist lateral forces as well as a poured-concrete wall due to its large size. Likewise, it is more difficult to make a block wall watertight than a concrete wall, and does not make a wall as strong as a poured-concrete wall either.
The foundation walls of a house can be built with concrete blocks if they are attractive and durable.
7. Steel Foundation
Steel is required if you have concrete. Unsupported concrete can crack; steel reinforces them to keep them from cracking.
Rods of steel are available in different thicknesses and can be aligned either perpendicularly or parallelly. Steel for construction is generally coated in rust- and corrosion-resistant finishes to prevent rust and corrosion.